Pathology is the science of studying the various illnesses and everything that is related to the illness using the cells, tissues, bodily fluids, anatomy, etc. Pathology, in general, refers to the study of the human body as such and is used to investigate and identify the various types of illness that plague the human body by studying its causes, effects, indications, symptoms, and outcomes of infection in the human body.
When a patient contracts a certain illness, blood or other samples are taken by the hospital or as a routine procedure in health checkup packages to identify the various types of illness that might be present in the samples. If the tests come out clean, it means there are no illnesses that are found in the body. If the tests come out positive for one or more kinds of infection, then the patient needs to refer to a doctor to help with a diagnosis and treatment for the illness.
Types of Pathology
A Pathologist is a trained professional that can help in identifying the various samples, segregate and study each sample with diligence to identify the various bacterial, fungal, or viral infections that a person may have. The study of pathogens or these microorganisms that causes the various diseases in the human body is generally called Pathology and is part of many health checkup packages. This study can be done by collecting various types of samples and based on this, there are 4 types of Pathology:
1. Clinical Pathology
Clinical Pathology is a stream of pathology that deals with the study of bodily fluids such as blood, urine, feces, sputum, and other kinds of fluids such as spinal fluids, pleural fluids, belly fluids, joint fluids, and bone marrow.
This is one of the biggest branches of pathology and is also one of the largest types of clinical study that is routinely done for patients to identify the various kinds of infections that people may have by studying the basic materials extracted from them such as blood and urine. In more severe infections, the other kinds of wastes such as sputum, feces, and other bodily fluids are studied.
2. Anatomic Pathology
Anatomical Pathology is the next biggest branch of pathology and has several small components within itself. It refers to the study of tissues, organs, and tumors, or some other kinds of parts that are removed from the body. It may also signify dead bodies as well which is now termed individually as Forensic Pathology.
Anatomical Pathology tries to establish the physical constituents and makeup of these organs or tissues, their microscopic appearance, the chemical structures and constituents, and the molecular biology of these tissues and organs. Anatomic Pathology is further subdivided into surgical pathology, histopathology, Cytopathology, Dermatopathology, etc. Each of these deals with individual kinds of tissues and organ components.
3. Forensic Pathology
This branch of Pathology deals with the study of corpses and their post mortem examination. It also involves the process of studying the corpses to establish their cause of death. This study often involves the examination of various organs, the cause of death, the physical nature of the body and the various organs, and the chemical nature of their bodily fluids. The tests often conduct legal pathology tests.
4. Molecular Pathology
Molecular pathology consists of the study of RNA and DNA sequencing, the various kinds of genetics, and other kinds of study with regards to the microscopic study of the cells, tissues, and all other kinds of genetic material.